ABSTRACT The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of species is a concept that explicitly addresses area and therefore can be highly relevant for conservation planning and policy. This study compiled a comprehensive database of MAR estimates... more

ABSTRACT The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of species is a concept that explicitly addresses area and therefore can be highly relevant for conservation planning and policy. This study compiled a comprehensive database of MAR estimates from the literature, covering 216 terrestrial animal species from 80 studies. We obtained estimates from (a) Population Viability Analyses (PVAs) which explored a range of area-related scenarios, (b) PVAs that provided a fixed value – either MAR or the minimum viable population size (MVP) alongside other area-relevant information, and (c) empirical studies of occupancy patterns in islands or isolated habitat patches across area. We assessed the explanatory power of life-history traits (body mass, feeding guild, generation length and offspring size), environmental variables (average precipitation and temperature), research approach and phylogenetic group on MAR estimates. PVAs exploring area showed strong correlation between MAR and body mass. One to two additional variables further improved the predictive power. PVA reporting fixed MAR, and occupancy-based studies, were better explained by the combination of feeding guild, climatic variables and additional life history traits. Phylogeny had a consistent but usually small contribution to the predictive power of models. Our work demonstrates that estimating the MAR across species and taxa is achievable but requires cautious interpretation. We further suggest that occupancy patterns are likely sensitive to transient dynamics and are therefore risky to use for estimating MAR. PVA-based evaluations enable considering time horizon and extinction probability, two aspects that are critical for future implementation of the MAR concept into policy and management.

ABSTRACT The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of species is a concept that explicitly addresses area and therefore can be highly relevant for conservation planning and policy. This study compiled a comprehensive database of MAR estimates... more

ABSTRACT The Minimum Area Requirements (MAR) of species is a concept that explicitly addresses area and therefore can be highly relevant for conservation planning and policy. This study compiled a comprehensive database of MAR estimates from the literature, covering 216 terrestrial animal species from 80 studies. We obtained estimates from (a) Population Viability Analyses (PVAs) which explored a range of area-related scenarios, (b) PVAs that provided a fixed value – either MAR or the minimum viable population size (MVP) alongside other area-relevant information, and (c) empirical studies of occupancy patterns in islands or isolated habitat patches across area. We assessed the explanatory power of life-history traits (body mass, feeding guild, generation length and offspring size), environmental variables (average precipitation and temperature), research approach and phylogenetic group on MAR estimates. PVAs exploring area showed strong correlation between MAR and body mass. One to two additional variables further improved the predictive power. PVA reporting fixed MAR, and occupancy-based studies, were better explained by the combination of feeding guild, climatic variables and additional life history traits. Phylogeny had a consistent but usually small contribution to the predictive power of models. Our work demonstrates that estimating the MAR across species and taxa is achievable but requires cautious interpretation. We further suggest that occupancy patterns are likely sensitive to transient dynamics and are therefore risky to use for estimating MAR. PVA-based evaluations enable considering time horizon and extinction probability, two aspects that are critical for future implementation of the MAR concept into policy and management.

A very effective method to evaluate the products is the Customer Matrix (CM) that uses two coordinates: Perceived Used Value (PUV) and Perceived Price. Our researches extend this basic concept by adding the time variable, creating CM with... more

A very effective method to evaluate the products is the Customer Matrix (CM) that uses two coordinates: Perceived Used Value (PUV) and Perceived Price. Our researches extend this basic concept by adding the time variable, creating CM with different time horizons that assures a better understanding of competitive environment. In the first stage, the Customer Matrix is associated with a forecast method. The relevance tree method was used to predict the most probable evolution paths of electrodischarge machines. In the second stage, the CM with different time horizons is constructed, considering products evaluation for short, medium and long time. Finally, a strategy is conceived for an organization that attempts to ameliorate and consolidate its long term position against the main competitors, aiming at obtaining sustainable competitive advantage.

The positive influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) on host countries economic growth has been widely debated. Given the mixed empirical evidence, scholars have sought to find the economic preconditions under which FDI spillovers... more

The positive influence of foreign direct investment (FDI) on host countries economic growth has been widely debated. Given the mixed empirical evidence, scholars have sought to find the economic preconditions under which FDI spillovers are likely to occur and facilitate economic growth in the host countries. Those preconditions are not exogenously dictated but largely shaped by governments policy preferences. Particularly in autocracies, an autocrats policy preferences are the driving force that determines whether a host country is likely to be equipped with growth-friendly institutions and policies. We argue that such economic institutions and policies are dependent on the time horizons of autocrats in power. Our empirical analysis covering 64 autocratic countries from 1970 to 2005 supports our main argument that FDI has a positive effect on growth when autocratic time horizons are sufficiently long, and positive FDI spillovers mainly occur through the protection of property right institutions.

The effect of future rate of reinforcement on choice and rate of responding was examined in three experiments in all of which pigeons performed on an operant simulation of diet selection followed by either a high or low rate of... more

The effect of future rate of reinforcement on choice and rate of responding was examined in three experiments in all of which pigeons performed on an operant simulation of diet selection followed by either a high or low rate of reinforcement. In Experiment 1 the duration of the prey selection task was 20 min. A within-subjects design was used: in one operant chamber a high rate of reinforcement followed the session of diet selection, and in another chamber, a low rate of reinforcement followed. In Experiment 2 a between-subjects design was used with 8 min of diet selection and a stronger manipulation of rate of reinforcement. In Experiment 3, a within-subjects design was used with more highly discriminable operant chambers. The results on rate of responding were consistent with what is known about contrast: A weak contrast effect during the diet selection task was obtained in Experiment 1, a larger contrast effect in Experiment 3, and a conditioning effect was found in Experiment 2. The effect on choice was examined in Experiments 1 and 3 but was weak in both cases. The results suggest that the mechanism underlying contrast in choice and rate of responding are not one and the same. Foraging implications are discussed.

Page 1. WORKING PAPERS N.004 | 10 LA TUTELA DELL'OCCUPAZIONE NELLE COOPERATIVE DI LAVORO: STRUMENTI E MOTIVAZIONI Analisi di un gruppo di cooperative ravennati Cecilia Navarra JEL Classification: J54, P13, D23, D92 Fondazione... more

Page 1. WORKING PAPERS N.004 | 10 LA TUTELA DELL'OCCUPAZIONE NELLE COOPERATIVE DI LAVORO: STRUMENTI E MOTIVAZIONI Analisi di un gruppo di cooperative ravennati Cecilia Navarra JEL Classification: J54, P13, D23, D92 Fondazione Euricse, Italy ...

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